🛠️Logging in


link default passwords

Authentication issues are important to take into consideration. A login page can be the beginning of serious issues regarding accounts takeover.

or bruteforce


or authentication bypass


Brute-forcing can have 2 interesting purposes during a pentest engagement:

  1. Verifying that the web application implements security measures against brute-forcing.

  2. Taking over an account by guessing its credentials.

One has to check whether a defense mechanism is used (account locking, blocking IP, CAPTCHA, etc.)

Account locking can lead to a denial of service and allow user enumeration. Check the OWASP recommendation on how it should be implemented.

User enumeration

User enumeration can be made possible depending on the:

  • Status code (is the status code retrieved, always the same?)

  • Error messages (does the error messages give a hint on whether the account exists?)

  • Response time (is the response time always the same?)

JSON Web Tokens (JWS) / OAuth 2.0

Check the following pages for issues regarding JWS and OAuth 2.0.

SQL injection

The tool sqlmap can unveil SQL injections on log-in forms.


Use the --level and --delay options in pentest engagements to avoid issues (aggressive payloads and denial of service)

For manual testing: SQL injection (PayloadsAllTheThings)

🛠️ NoSQL injection

For manual testing: NoSQL injection (PayloadsAllTheThings)

🛠️ LDAP injection

For manual testing: LDAP injection (PayloadsAllTheThings)

Encrypted requests

Some web applications don't use TLS to encrypt login requests, this can lead to account takeover via a Man-in-the-Middle attack.



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