A web application usually relies on multiple components which compose the attack surface among which the potential elements:
- the web server (e.g. Apache, Nginx, Microsoft IIS)
When conducting an audit of a web app, identifying those technologies and the versions in use is necessary to conduct a thorough reconnaissance and correctly map the attack surface.
Those technologies can usually be identified from the different elements:
- Credits at the bottom or corner of pages
- HTTP headers
- Common files (e.g.
- Stack traces and verbose error messages
Automated scanning tools can also help identify which technologies are used.