🛠️Null-byte injection


Null byte is a bypass technique for sending data that would be filtered otherwise. It relies on injecting the null byte characters (%00, \x00) in the supplied data. Its role is to terminate a string.


File access restriction by extension

Accessing a file in an application that appends an extension.


  1. An attacker wants to retrieve the file/etc/passwd but an extension .php is appended automatically such as /etc/passwd.php.

  2. The attacker uses the null byte to terminate the string and throw away the .php extension: /etc/passwd%00

File upload restriction by extension

Uploading a file that is filtered by its extension.


  1. An attacker wants to upload a malicious.php, but the only extension allowed is .pdf.

  2. The attacker constructs the file name such as malicious.php%00.pdf and uploads the file.

  3. The application reads the .pdf extension, validate the upload, and later throws the end of the string due to the null byte.

  4. The file malicious.php is then put in the server.

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